lunes, 11 de octubre de 2010

la familia y el desarrollo

Family and personality development.

By Prof. Miguel Lucas Martinez. Teachers Normal School Jilotepec. State of Mexico.

Families where children grow up are probably the biggest factor of influence on their development. Topics to question: "The arrival of this child was planned and welcome? What was the age of the parents? Does personality relate well to parents and their children? Parents Are they healthy? Are they rich or poor? How many people live in the house? The influence also travels in another direction. Children affect their parents turning their mood, their priorities and future plans, and even marriage itself. In the mid-90sm family life is quite different from what was a century ago, and is likely to change family life even more in the future. It is quite possible that an actual child only has a brother, a mother working outside the home and a parent more involved in their children's lives than his own father was. It is possible that a child receives good care from people other than their family, first with someone at home and then a preschool. Today, children have a 40% to 50% chance of spending part of his childhood with one parent, perhaps the mother, and perhaps due to divorce (PC Glick and Lin, 1986). In USA, family life for these children is also typically very different from other children living in many other societies. Early social experiences vary greatly around the world. Among the Efe of the African nation of Zaire, for example, children first engage in a close relationship with a person, mother, and then go on to form other relationships based on this pattern (Tronick, Morelli, and Ivey, 1992) By contrast, birth efe infants are cared for by five or more people at a regular time, and other women, like their mothers, fed on a routine basis. Three years have passed about 70% of their time with people other than their mothers. This social pattern conforms to the shape of efe life and can lead to a distinctive set of social skills for these children. Consider the child in the family The awareness of different social experiences in the lives of children has revolutionized the study of socialization, as children learn the behaviors that the culture considers appropriate. Mothers and children were studied before, are now studying the links between parents, brothers and sisters, grandparents and others involved in your care Another study is the approach to the whole family. There are important questions of three individuals who share an environment, a context, but their relationships are different. Charles-son Mother Ellen Vicky - grandmother. An example of this. How it affects the marriage relationship to the children? What are the behaviors of the children alone and in groups? As it affected the development and growth of a child when he has only one parent. Each research topic would generate a host of responses according to many possibilities and ways to develop, nurture children. Watching a family as a unit, you have a fuller picture of the network of relationships among its members. It is interesting how how babies are related to those close to them and the meaning of these links. Bonding: a reciprocal connection Bonding is an active, affectionate, reciprocal and strong between two people, who in nonscientific circles is known as love. The interaction between two people is continuing to strengthen this link. Mary Ainsworth (1979) pioneered the investigation of these ties of affection. "An essential part of the ground plan of the human species for an infant is linked to a mother figure" Do not have to be the child's biological mother, but may be the closest person that cares. Ainsworth wrote 4 stages superimposed bonding behavior. 1 .- Before you respond infants two months without discrimination against any "person. 2 .- to 8 to 12 weeks the babies cry, smile, babble over to the mother with another person, but continues to respond to others. 3 .- to 6 months, babies show a clearly defined emotional bond with the mother, with a decreased expression of friendship towards others. 4 .- The babies develop a bond with one or more familiar figures as the father or siblings. Fear of strangers can appear between six to 8 months. Study of bonding. Mary Ainsworth, first study the bonding in the early 50s. As a colleague of John Bowlby 1951. Bowlby was convinced of the importance of bonding between mother and baby, from linkage studies in animals. From the study of disturbed children in a psychoanalytic clinic warned against the separation of mother and child. Ainsworth, influenced studies on bond between monkeys and African babies behavior of Uganda (1967) tried to repeat them in Baltimore. Designed the famous strange situation. Reveals the behavior of the closeness between an adult and an infant, is now common mechanisms to study bonding. In the 8 episodes of the Strange Situation: 1 .- The mother and child entering fourth unknown. 2 .- mother and baby sitting is free to explore. 3 .- enters an unknown adult. 4 .- the mother goes out and leaves the baby alone with the stranger. 5 .- the mother returns and stranger leaves the room. 6 .- the mother goes out and leaves the baby alone in the room. 7 .- the stranger returns in place of the mother, and finally 8 .- the strange way when the mother returns. The mother encourages the baby to explore and play again, comforting if your baby seems to need (Ainsworth, Bleher, Waters & Wall, 1978). Of particular interest is the response of the baby when the mother returns. Bonding patterns When Ainsworth and colleagues looked at children under one year of age in the Strange Situation and at home, they found three major patterns of link: Security emotional bond pattern .- bond in which the infant is expected in rapidly from the caregiver and actively seeks then when she returns. Distinguishing two forms: anxiety and insecure attachment. Babies with security ties cry or protest when the mother leaves and expressed when he returns. They use it as a secure base: let it go and explore, returning occasionally to make sure. Babies who cooperate and are relatively free of anger. At 18 months, they move better than babies with long ties of anxiety. (Cassady, 1986) Avoidance emotional bonds. Bond pattern in which an infant rarely cries when the person who cares first leaves, and avoid contact with her when she returns. Babies cry when they rarely prevent the mother leaves, and avoid when you return. Remain aloof from it even when they need and tend to dislike. They dislike that rise up but even more than down. Ambivalent or resistant bonding. Bond pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the caregiver leaves but also the search and when to avoid contact with her when she returns. Babies ambivalent (resistant) become anxious even before the mother goes and alters when it exits. on his return, show their ambivalence to seek contact with her even while kicking and screaming. Resistant infants do not explore much and are difficult to soothe. Subsequently identified emotional bonds disorganized-disoriented. Bond pattern in which the infant shows contradictory behaviors. Often babies with this type of bond present inconsistent and contradictory behavior. They greet the mother with alacrity when he returns but then move away or close without looking. They seem confused and afraid I can represent the pattern less secure (Main & Solomon, 1986). As stated bonding. Based on the interaction of a baby with his mother, the boy can build a "working model" of what to expect from it, says Ainsworth. Different types of emotional ties lead to different cognitive representations, and thus to different expectations. To the extent that the mother continue to act basically in the same way the model is maintained. If it changes the behavior of one or two times, the baby will change the model and bonding can change. The security bond evolves from trust, which allows the child to explore the world from a secure base and then to develop virtues that Erikson determined in relation to the autonomy and initiative. As the mother should Mothers of insurance with one year of age are sensitive to their infants during the first year of life (Isabella, 1993). They pick up signals from their children about when to feed and serve the child's signals to stop, slow or speed up their food. (Ainsworth, 1979) Mothers whose interaction with their children in five months is loving, caring and timely tend to have positive personalities, higher educational levels and esposaos that support them. (Fish, Stifter, and Belsky, 1993). As the baby comes Not only the mother who helps the security bond, infants actively influence on caregivers. Mothers of babies with security ties (measured in the strange situation) were more sociable, dedicated to breeding, showed more empathy and experienced a positive emotion, but also openly expressed more anger and sadness about their children. Moms of babies with long ties of insecurity felt more insecure and helpless, they experienced more anger and sadness, but less openly expressed these feelings about their children. Infants with insecure bond cried again m'pas demanded attention and showed more sadness and anger. The behavior of mothers affects babies with a certain probability. The temperament of a child appears to influence the affective, as researchers found that such a link, such as frustration levels and rates of crying (Izard, Haynes, Chisholm, and Baak, 1991).

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